What Are the 18 Behavioral Red Flags of Potential Violence?
Mass attackers rarely hide all warning signs of potential violence or conflict ahead of a confrontation. Instead, many present red flags or proximal warning behaviors that together form patterns of risk. The Terrorist Radicalization Assessment Protocol (TRAP-18) identifies eight unique proximal warning behaviors and an additional 10 characteristics more closely tied to the potential attacker’s motives, and this methodology has been used across the United States and Europe to evaluate individuals of concern.
- Time Sequencing the TRAP-18 Indicators, Journal of Threat Assessment and Management
- Assessing the threat of lone-actor terrorism: The reliability and validity of the TRAP-18, Forensische Psychiatrie, Psychologie, Kriminologie
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