Security Glossary - S

This glossary has been created to assist security professionals in defining security terms commonly used by the profession and the industry, worldwide. It is a developing list that will be maintained, and where appropriate, modified, and changed over time. Terms borrowed from related fields, such as engineering, investigations, safety, etc. will be included when deemed necessary for the security professional.

REFERENCE NOTE

The definition's source is cited in brackets [ ] following the definition. View the key to all cited reference sources.

It is NOT our goal to publish this glossary in print since it is intended to be a current online reference (on the ASIS website) to serve the security professional on an ongoing basis.

 
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Definition
safety

​Freedom from danger, risk, or injury.
[ASIS/BSI BCM.01-2010]

security

​The condition of being protected against hazards, threats, risks, or loss.
Note 1: In the general sense, security is a concept similar to safety. The distinction between the two is an added emphasis on being protected from dangers that originate from outside.
Note 2: The term security means that something not only is secure but that it has been secured. 
[ASIS SPC.1-2009]  [ANSI/ASIS PAP.1-2012] 
[ANSI/ASIS PSC.1-2012] [ANSI/ASIS/RIMS RA.1-2015]

security aspects

​Those characteristics, elements, or properties which reduce the risk of unintentionally, intentionally, and naturally-caused crises and disasters that disrupt and have consequences on the products and services, operation, critical assets, and continuity of the organization and its stakeholders. 
[ASIS SPC.1-2009]  [ANSI/ASIS PAP.1-2012]

security function

​Describes the collective program functions within any public, private, or not-for-profit organization that is accountable for supporting the designated leaderships' fiduciary obligation to protect the human, physical and intellectual, tangible and intangible assets as well as other obligatory interests of the organization.  
[ANSI/ASIS CSO.1-2013] 

security incident

(1) An occurrence or action likely to impact assets.    
[ASIS GDL FPSM-2009]
         
(2) A security-related occurrence or action likely to lead to death, injury, or monetary loss. An assault against an employee, customer, or supplier on company property would be one example of a security incident.
[ASIS GDL GLCO 01 012003]

security manager

​An employee or contractor with management-level responsibility for the security of an organization or facility.
[ASIS GDL FPSM-2009]  [ANSI/ASIS PAP.1-2012]

security measure

​(1) A practice or item designed to protect people and prevent damage to, loss of, or unauthorized access to equipment, facilities, material, and information. 
[ASIS GDL FPSM-2009]

(2) A practice or device designed to protect people and prevent damage to, loss of, or unauthorized access to equipment, facilities, material, and information.
[ANSI/ASIS PAP.1-2012]

security officer

​An individual, in uniform or plain clothes, employed to protect assets.
[ASIS GDL FPSM-2009]  [ANSI/ASIS PAP.1-2012]

security survey

​A thorough physical examination of a facility and its systems and procedures, conducted to assess the current level of security, locate deficiencies, and gauge the degree of protection needed.
[ASIS GDL FPSM-2009]  [ANSI/ASIS PAP.1-2012]

security vulnerability

​An exploitable security weakness.
[ASIS GDL GLCO 01 012003]

selection

​The act or process of choosing individuals who possess certain characteristics or qualities.
[ASIS GDL PSO-2010]

self-defense

​The use of reasonable force in defense of oneself or others. 

  • Note 1:  Deadly force should only be used in self-defense or the defense of others, when it reasonably appears necessary to prevent the commission of a serious offense involving violence threatening death or serious bodily harm.

[ANSI/ASIS PSC.1-2012] [ANSI/ASIS PSC.4-2013]

senior security executive

​See Chief Security Officer.
[ANSI/ASIS CSO.1-2013]

sensitive information

​Information or knowledge that might result in loss of an advantage or level of security if disclosed to others.
[ASIS GDL IAP 05 2007]

Sensitive Personally Identifiable Information (SPII)

​A term used in information security to identify a piece or pieces of information that can be associated with a unique individual and that can result in harm to the individual if misused. This term is often used to describe information that is can be used in identity theft. Information such as a Social Security Number, National ID number, or Driver’s License number is considered SPII, since it is not readily or publically available, identifies a unique individual, and can result in harm if misused.  Some information can result in harm (and is thus considered SPII) when it is found in conjunction with other pieces of data (such as a financial account number) in conjunction with other identifying information (such as a name). SPII requires strict handling guidelines as a result of the risk of misuse.
[ASIS GDL PBS-2009]

service mark

​A name, phrase, or other device used to identify and distinguish the services of a certain provider. Service marks identify and afford protection to intangible things such as services, as distinguished from the protection already provided for marks affixed to tangible things such as goods and products.
[ASIS GDL IAP 05 2007]

shelter in place

The process of securing and protecting people and assets in the general area in which a crisis occurs.
[ASIS GDL BC 01 2005]

ship

​Any man-made vessel or structure capable of being manned, of any size or type, built for navigation or buoyancy on, over, or under water.
[ANSI/ASIS PSC.4-2013]

simulation exercise

​(1) A test performed under conditions as close as practicable to real world conditions.
[ASIS SPC1.2009]
(2) A test in which participants perform some or all of the actions they would take in the event of plan activation. Simulation exercises are performed under conditions as close as practicable to “real world” conditions.
[ASIS GDL BC 01 2005]

site

​A spatial location than can be designated by longitude and latitude.
[ASIS GDL GLCO 01 012003]

site hardening

​Implementation of enhancement measures to make a site or facility more difficult to penetrate.
[ASIS GDL FPSM-2009] [ANSI/ASIS PAP.1-2012]

social security number

​A nine digit number resembling ‘‘123-00-1234’’ that is issued to an individual by the U.S. Social Security Administration. The original purpose of this number was to administer the Social Security program, but it has come to be used as a ‘‘primary key’’ (a de facto national ID number) for individuals within the United States. The nine-digit Social Security Number is divided into three parts.    
The first three digits are the area number. Prior to 1973, the area number reflected the state in which an individual applied for a Social Security Number. Since 1973, the first three digits of a Social Security Number are determined by the ZIP code of the mailing address shown on the application for a Social Security Number. The middle two digits are the group number. They have no special geographic or data significance but merely serve to break the number into conveniently sized blocks for orderly issuance. The last four digits are serial numbers. They represent a straight numerical sequence of digits from 0001-9999 within the group.
[ASIS GDL PBS-2009]

source

(1) Anything which alone or in combination has the intrinsic potential to give rise to risk.
Note: A risk source can be tangible or intangible.
[ASIS SPC.1-2009]

(2) Element which alone or in combination has the intrinsic potential to give rise to risk.
Note: A risk source can be tangible or intangible.
[ANSI/ASIS PAP.1-2012]

specified requirement

​Need or expectation that is stated.
Note: Specified requirements may be stated in normative documents such as regulations, standards, and technical specifications.
[ANSI/ASIS PSC.2-2012]

spoliation

​The intentional or negligent destruction, alteration, or mutilation of evidence, and may constitute an obstruction of justice.
[ANSI/ASIS INV.1-2015]

staging

​The assembling of material, equipment, etc. in  a particular place.   
[ASIS GDL TASR 04 2008]

stakeholder (interested party)

​(1) A person or group having an interest in the performance or success of an organization.
Note: The term includes persons and groups with an interest in an organization, its activities and its achievements – e.g., customers, clients, partners, employees, shareholders, owners, vendors, the local community, first responders, government agencies, and regulators.
[ASIS SPC.1-2009] [ANSI/ASIS PAP.1-2012]

(2) Person or organization that can affect, be affected by, or perceive themselves to be affected by a decision or activity.
Note:  A decision maker can be a stakeholder.
[ANSI/ASIS PSC.1-2012]

(3) Person or organization with an interest or concern.
Note:  A stakeholder can affect and may be affected by the organization and its achievement of its objectives (real or perceived).
[ANSI/ASIS/RIMS RA.1-2015]

standard of proof

​The quality and quantity of proof necessary to make a finding.
[ANSI/ASIS INV.1-2015]

stand-off distance / set-back

​The distance between the asset and the threat, typically regarding an explosive threat.
[ASIS GDL FPSM-2009]  [ANSI/ASIS PAP.1-2012]

state-of-the-art

​The most advanced level of knowledge and technology currently achieved in any field at any given time.
[ASIS GDL GLCO 01 012003]

subject

​The individual who is under investigation or the matter in question. Not to be confused with suspect as used in the public sector. The individual may or may not be a suspect.
Note:  Sometimes referred to as “respondent”.
[ANSI/ASIS INV.1-2015]

subject matter expertise

​Competencies, experiences, and advanced working knowledge of contemporary tradecraft, practices, and applications related to the topic of interest. 
[ASIS CSO.1-2008] [ANSI/ASIS CSO.1-2013]

supply chain

(1) A linked set of resources and processes that begins with the acquisition of raw material and extends through the delivery of products or services to the end user across the modes of transport. The supply chain may include suppliers, vendors, manufacturing facilities, logistics providers, internal distribution centers, distributors, wholesalers, and other entities that lead to the end user.
[ASIS SPC.1-2009]  [ANSI/ASIS PAP.1-2012]

(2) The linked set of resources and processes that begins with the sourcing of raw material and extends through the delivery of products or services to the end user.
Note:  The supply chain may include vendors, subcontractors, manufacturing facilities, logistics providers, internal distribution centers, distributors, wholesalers, and other entities that lead to the end user.
[ANSI/ASIS PSC.1-2012]

(3) A two-way relationship of organizations, people, activities, logistics, information, technology, and resources engaged in activities and creating value from point of origin to point of consumption, including transforming materials/components to products and services for end users.
[ANSI/ASIS SCRM.1-2014]
Note:  The supply chain may include vendors, subcontractors, manufacturing facilities, logistics providers, internal distribution centers, distributors, wholesalers, and other entities that lead to the end user.
[ANSI/ASIS/RIMS RA.1-2015]

supply chain management

​Management of a network of interconnected organizations and their activities related to the provision of goods and services from point of origin to point of consumption.
[ANSI/ASIS SCRM.1-2014]

support assistance

​Medical, financial, and emotional resources provided to employees, customers, and others involved in a catastrophic event or an attack on the organization.
[ASIS CSO.1-2008]

surveillance

​The observation of a location, activity, or person.
[ASIS GDL FPSM-2009]  [ANSI/ASIS PAP.1-2012]

surveillance

​The direct and deliberate observation or monitoring of people, places or things.
[ANSI/ASIS INV.1-2015]

sustainability

​The ability to maintain and preserve the activities and functions of an organization.
[ANSI/ASIS SPC.4-2012] [ANSI/ASIS PSC.3-2013]