Certification includes an experience and education component and requires passing an exam. It allows a practitioner to put letters after his or her name (CPP, CPA). In addition, certification requires recertification, which ensures that practitioners stay current in their field through continuing education. A certificate program typically indicates attendance or completion of a course or series of courses with a specific focus. They are open to newcomers and experienced professionals alike. The end result demonstrates knowledge of content at the end of a specific period of time.